Cultures antifongiques applicables comme ferments de bioprotection dans les produits laitiers : sélection, évaluation à l’échelle pilote et identification de composés supports de l’activité

Marcia Leyva-Salas
Directeur : E. Coton
LUBEM EA3882 / INRA STLO

Cultures antifongiques applicables comme ferments de bioprotection dans les produits laitiers : sélection, évaluation à l’échelle pilote et identification de composés supports de l’activité

La contamination fongique des produits laitiers est à l‘origine de pertes économiques conséquentes et de gaspillage alimentaire. Dans un contexte de demande pour plus de « naturalité », les cultures de bioprotection et leurs métabolites représentent une alternative d’intérêt aux conservateurs chimiques pour lutter contre ces contaminants. Les objectifs de cette thèse étaient i) de sélectionner des micro-organismes présentant une activité antifongique, pour élaborer des cultures de bioprotection applicables dans des produits laitiers, et ii) d’étudier les composés potentiellement supports de l’activité antifongique observée. Dans un premier temps, l’activité antifongique de 32 souches de bactéries lactiques et propioniques a été étudiée en modèles « fromage » et « yaourt ». L’étude de combinaisons de souches et de leur innocuité a conduit à sélectionner 2 combinaisons binaires de lactobacilles (A1 et A3). Leur efficacité et applicabilité a été évaluée à l’échelle pilote en fabrication de de crème fraîche et de fromage. Les challenges tests et tests d’usages ont montré que selon le produit laitier, A1 et A3 ont une activité antifongique similaire ou supérieure que les cultures bioprotectrices commerciales. Selon l’inoculum ajouté, ces cultures n’impactent pas les caractéristiques technologiques et organoleptiques des produits laitiers. Des méthodes chromatographiques des composés antifongiques suivies d’analyses statistiques ont permis de mettre en évidence des « cocktails » de 2 à 17 composés, selon la matrice et la culture considérée, qui sont probablement supports de l’activité antifongique. Ces travaux contribuent à une meilleure compréhension des mécanismes d’action de l’activité antifongique et devraient conduire au développement de cultures antifongiques pour remplacer les conservateurs dans les produits laitiers.

Mots clés : produits laitiers, contamination fongique, bioprotection, ferments additionnels, bactéries lactiques, composés antifongiques

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